Publish on 29/11/2018
- Affordable electric supply for isolated territories in South-East Asia
- Green energy helping to reduce the carbon footprint
- Proven and standardised solutions for a reliable and resilient microgrid
EDF, Enedis and the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have launched the MASERA microgrid project (Microgrid for Affordable and Sustainable Electricity in Remote Areas), as part of the Singapore International Energy Week (SIEW) and the 2018 France-Singapore Year of Innovation. This demonstrator will allow EDF to deploy a commercial offer of affordable and high-performance microgrids for isolated territories in South-East Asia.
EDF’s MASERA is part of NTU’s offshore microgrid testbed known as REIDS (Renewable Energy Integration Demonstrator – Singapore). Located at Semakau landfill, NTU’s REIDS is the region’s first offshore microgrid testbed which integrates multiple renewable energy sources to develop solutions to tackle regional electricity issues.
On this platform, EDF, at the head of a consortium of French smart grids/smart cities companies, has designed, built and commissioned the MASERA demonstrator within one year, a record time for such a prototype, integrating various innovative solutions:
- 50kW of bifacial photovoltaic panels;
- A Lithium-Ion storage system provided by Socomec;
- An affordable and eco-friendly Zinc-Air battery from Zinium (EDF spin-off);
- A Nissan Leaf electric vehicle
- A V2G (Vehicle to Grid) software platform and bidirectional charging hardware from Nuvve Corporation;
- A load bank to reproduce typical customers’ consumption;
- A 100 percent EDF local and remote microgrid control system allowing standardised communications and generation optimisation,
- A reliable and secure smart meter infrastructure with the expertise of Enedis.
In Singapore, EDF relied on the experience of local companies such as Aurecon, for the detailed technical design and Caxton, for the construction of the MASERA demonstrator.
The MASERA project is the demonstration of an industrial, innovative and easily deployable solution. It will allow EDF to support economic development in South-East Asia and therefore improve the quality of life of communities.
This project illustrates EDF’s drive and unique expertise in designing, developing and executing smart grid and microgrid projects on islands and territories with no access to the grid or facing reliability issues. In recent years, EDF has developed multiple innovative microgrid solutions
including a 100 percent renewable energy system on La Réunion island, the Nice Grid demonstrator in Carros near Nice and hybrid microgrids in Toucan and Kaw in French Guiana. In the frame of these developments, EDF benefits from Concept Grid, the EDF R&D leading smart grid laboratory near Paris.
Microgrid solutions leveraging the potential of renewable energies offer development perspectives in South-East Asia, taking into account the geographies, the current lack of infrastructures and the economic growth of the major countries in the region.
Bernard Salha, Senior Executive Vice President (VP) of EDF Group, President of EDF Research and Development, declared, “I am happy to be celebrating the launch of the MASERA demonstrator. This project allows us to combine the expertise and knowledge of Enedis, of the Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, of companies from the French Think Smartgrids association, which federates the whole players of the Smart Grid ecosystem like Enedis, Socomec, Sagemcom and start-ups, and of the EDF Group in the domain of microgrids. Thanks to MASERA, EDF whose ambition is to become one of the world leaders in microgrids will improve its knowledge of local markets, reinforce its R&D and demonstrate the reliability of off-grid and microgrid solutions which can be developed in South-East Asia, which is at the heart of the Group’s international strategy : renewable generation, energy efficiency, smart city”.
Marianne Laigneau, EDF Group Senior Executive Vice President (VP) in charge of international division, declared, “the inauguration of MASERA illustrates both the technological know-how of EDF, its ability to match the specific demands of its customers and its willingness to develop its footprint in Asia which is at the heart of its international strategy”.
Publish on 15/10/2018
Electric mobility will be experiencing sustained growth in the coming years. The transportation sector is the biggest contributor to greenhouse-gas emissions in Europe1 and, in view of these facts, low-carbon electricity is the future’s solution for clean transportation. With an energy mix of which 87% is CO2-free, the EDF Group has a major role to play.
In France, EDF is already a standard-bearer in the electric mobility sector. The Group has put together dedicated offerings that include the supply of low-carbon electricity and charging solutions2. It is also one of the biggest charging network operators thanks to its subsidiary Sodetrel, which operates 5 000 charging points in France and provides access to 60 000 charging points in Europe for customers with a Sodetrel Pass.
With the Electric Mobility Plan, EDF is stepping up the pace by setting concrete targets on its four main European markets.
Becoming the leading power supplier for electric vehicles by 2022
EDF is aiming to supplying power for 600 000 electric vehicles, equating to 30% of market share in France, the UK, Italy and Belgium. Starting in 2019, the Group will present each of these markets with a fully integrated range of offerings including low carbon electricity, a charging solution for all its customers with access to a parking space, and services geared towards optimised charging and use of the vehicle’s battery.
Becoming the biggest charging network operator
EDF will become the leading public and private charging network operator in the four core European countries. Through its subsidiary Sodetrel, the Group is aiming to deploy 75 000 charging points and provide its customers in Europe with access to 250 000 interoperable terminals by 2022. EDF will also be developing novel charging solutions for all customers without access to a parking space, in particular through collaborative innovation initiated by EDF New Business and EDF R&D.
Becoming Europe’s "smart charging" leader
Electric mobility will transform power systems as the electric vehicle is also a battery that can be used for the grids to balance load during periods of high demand. With it’s the Electric Mobility Plan, the Group will become Europe’s smart charging leader, aiming to operate 4 000 smart charging points by 2020.
Jean-Bernard Lévy, EDF Chairman and Chief Executive Officer: "Already a standard-bearer and pioneer of electric mobility, the EDF Group is stepping up the pace with its Plan Mobilité Electrique. Thanks to its low-carbon energy mix, EDF will substantially contribute to the fight against global warming by supporting municipalities, businesses and residential customers with the development of clean mobility everywhere and for everyone. In order to achieve this goal, EDF is building an ecosystem of innovative players by forming strategic partnerships for the large-scale roll-out of the best technologies to support our customers."
The Plan Mobilité Electrique relies on new partnerships with innovative players who are leaders in their respective markets. The first series of partnerships has been formed between:
EDF and NUVVE: EDF Renewables North America holds a minority interest in NUVVE, a Californian start-up based in San Diego specialising in the aggregation and harnessing of flexible solutions for energy markets, associated with the charging of electric vehicles. EDF and NUVVE have signed a strategic partnership agreement with a view to forming a joint venture to develop these solutions in Europe.
EDF and Ubitricity: EDF and German-based start-up Ubitricity have been commercial and technological partners since 2014. Ubitricity has developed an innovative solution to convert existing streetlights into charging points and delivered several projects in Europe and across the world. Citelum (100% affiliate of EDF Group) and Ubitricity are partnering to integrate this innovative solution to Citelum’s “smart city” range of product.
EDF and Renault have formed a partnership to develop shared offerings and to experiment electric mobility solutions in isolated regions and big cities.
EDF and Toyota have been electric mobility partners with a focus on R&D since 2007 and have extended this partnership to low-carbon industrial performance on the Onnaing site in Valenciennes since 2017. The expertise of both EDF and Toyota is now opening the way to new cooperative endeavours in the areas of smart charging and hydrogen charging station specifications.
EDF and Valeo: EDF, the low carbon energies champion and Valeo, the leader in high and medium voltage electrification, have formed a partnership to monitor the development of future battery technologies and charging solutions, as well as the development of mobility services. This partnership will be supported by the installation of shared demonstrators.
EDF Energy (100% subsidiary of the EDF Group) and Nissan International have formed a UK-based partnership for the development of shared offerings in the areas of electric mobility, smart charging, second-life battery use, energy storage and renewable energy sources. The two partners will be pooling their international experience and know-how in these areas, thereby helping to develop low-carbon, innovative and responsible transportation systems.
Publish on 10/07/2018
Taishan is the largest cooperative energy project between China and France. It is operated by TNPJVC, a joint venture established between CGN (51%), EDF (30%) and the provincial Chinese electricity company Yuedian (19%). The construction of Taishan 1 began in 2009, whilst that of Taishan 2 began in 2010. These two units were respectively the third and fourth EPR reactors to have started being built worldwide.
On the 10th of April, following the completion of preparatory work and testing phases, China’s Ministry of Ecology and Environment granted Taishan 1 permission to load the reactor with fuel. Fuelling operations commenced on the very same day. The first chain reaction in reactor no. 1 took place on the 6th of June and on the 29th of June, main-generator and grid-connection tests were successfully completed.
Following the unit’s first connection to the grid, the reactor will undergo a period of gradual power-up tests. Once the reactor has passed all these tests, it will then be tested in steady-state conditions at full power. Since the start of construction, the Taishan project has aligned itself with the highest safety and quality standards, which have been monitored throughout its duration.
A number of factors contributed to Taishan 1 being the world’s first EPR to go on line: it has benefited from a longstanding strategic partnership between EDF and CGN, from both partners’ experience in the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, and from the support of leading players in both countries’ nuclear sectors. During the initial stage of the project, Taishan also benefited from the experience of the two European EPR projects (Flamanville and Olkiluoto), which had started being built earlier on.
The EPR design adopted by Taishan nuclear power plant features third-generation nuclear technology, jointly developed by EDF and Framatome. This technology incorporates operating experience and technological improvements spanning the past 40 years of Pressurised Water Reactor operation around the world.
As the world’s leading EPR project, Taishan epitomises the strength of the nuclear partnership between France and China, whilst at the same time providing reactors of similar design around the world with valuable experience in the areas of project management and technological expertise.
*European Pressurised Reactor
The EDF Group has inaugurated two ground breaking energy transition projects in the United Kingdom: the off-shore wind farm in Blyth and the battery storage facility in West Burton
Publish on 10/07/2018
Blyth off-shore wind farmLocated off the Northumberland coast, the Blyth off-shore wind farm is composed of five turbines with total generation capacity of 41.5 MW. Several innovations have been built in to contribute to enhanced competitiveness of off-shore wind power.
Blyth is the first off-shore wind farm to use float and submerge technology. The wind turbines are supported with gravity-based foundations transported by floating, which reduces the installation costs. The 8.3 MW turbines are amongst the most powerful of their type to be used offshore. A dedicated operations and maintenance team with 9 members has been set up at the Port of Blyth.
The EDF Group, in the form of EDF Renewables in the UK, already operates the 62 MW Teesside off-shore wind farm located around 80 km to the south of the new Blyth facility. In May, the Group acquired the 450 MW Neart Na Gaoithe off-shore wind project off the east coast of Scotland and has been granted all the administrative permits.
West Burton B battery storage facilityThe 49 MW battery storage facility located at West Burton B power station is the largest project in the new frequency control system which will be deployed across the UK to improve stability of the national grid.
Against the backdrop of extensive development of renewable energy generation and the closure of ageing power plants, battery storage technology supports stability of the grid and can be used for rapid response to fluctuations in grid frequency.
Jean-Bernard Lévy, the EDF Group Chairman and CEO stated: These two innovative projects demonstrate our expertise in renewable energies and electricity storage. They contribute greatly to decarbonisation of the energy mix in the UK, our second largest market after France. They are both consistent with our CAP 2030 strategy, which aims to double EDF Group renewable energy generation by the year 2030 and our Electricity Storage Plan with the installation of 10 GW of new storage facilities supporting the electricity systems by the year 2035.
Simone Rossi, EDF Energy Chief Executive Officer stated: These projects show how EDF is investing in new technologies to promote the development of renewable energies in the UK. At Blyth, we have used innovation to drive down the cost of off-shore wind power and at West Burton B we are setting up infrastructures, which will guarantee viability of a system increasingly focused on low carbon energy. Both projects demonstrate our commitment to providing UK consumers with reliable, affordable, low carbon energy from a range of technologies mainly based on renewable energies, batteries and nuclear power.
Bruno Bensasson, Group Executive Vice-President in charge of Renewable Energies added: I am delighted to inaugurate these innovative projects. They demonstrate that EDF Group plays a significant role in the shaping of renewable energies and is able to offer reliable solutions for global expansion. The fast-track construction at Blyth highlights robustness of EDF Group expertise in off-shore wind power that we intend to further develop on the UK market, as well as in France and beyond.
EDF Group, your territorial partnerEDF Energy, a subsidiary of the EDF Group, is already a major employer in both the North-East and in Nottinghamshire, at nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants as well as at customer service centres. The projects inaugurated today bolster EDF Group presence in these two regions. Hartlepool nuclear power station employs more than 600 persons and the call centre at Doxford Park employs 1100 people, while the EDF Renewables office just outside Durham has 100 employees. In Nottinghamshire, West Burton B CCGT power station (1332 MW) is adjacent to West Burton A coal-fired power station (2000 MW) and close to Cottam coal-fired power station (2000 MW). These plants employ a total of more than 500 persons.
The Vietnamese government confirms the EDF Group’s position as leader of the consortium in charge of the studies for the building of a 2000-MW combined-cycle power plant at Son My
Publish on 02/04/2018
With an installed capacity of 2000 MW, the Son My 1 project, which uses Combined Cycle Gas Turbine technology, is due to be commissioned by 2023/2024, with a view to meeting the strong and growing demand for electrical power in the south of Vietnam.
The Group (37.5%) is leading the consortium in charge of the project’s studies, together with one Vietnamese partner (Pacific Corporation, 25%) and two Japanese partners (Sojitz 18.75% and Kyushu 18.75%).
EDF is already active in Vietnam via its Mekong Energy Company subsidiary (56.25%). The company operates the Phu My 2.2 facility, which comprises two combined-cycle plants with a total capacity of 715 MW.
Marianne Laigneau, Senior Executive Vice-President in charge of the International Division: "The Vietnamese government’s decision marks a decisive step in the development of plans to build a gas power plant at Son My in Vietnam. It boosts our confidence in the subsequent stages of this project, which is essential to meeting the country’s growing energy needs. The project is fully aligned with Vietnam’s energy transition. Our involvement in this country, which is already significant in the gas-fired power sector, is in line with our CAP 2030 strategy, which seeks to multiply the Group’s international business by three come 2030".
Publish on 08/03/2018
A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) has been signed between TATA Power Delhi Distribution (TPDDL) and EDF on Feb 27, 2018 in New Delhi. Marianne LAIGNEAU, EDF Group Senior Executive Vice President in charge of the International division, signed this MoU with Praveer SINHA, CEO of TPDDL. The agreement is an intent and willingness of both companies to jointly work on the areas of (i) smart lighting management, (ii) smart poles, electric vehicle charging infrastructure and other innovative smart grid solutions. As next step, teams from both companies will meet to define a possible business model to jointly work on the coming business tenders on Smart grid in India. The discussions would also define the responsibility matrix and scope of each company to respond to the tenders. Some pilot projects could be jointly executed in innovative & smart grid technologies.
2017 annual results. 2017 financial targets achieved. 2018 targets confirmed. Performance plan in advance.
Publish on 07/03/2018
Jean-Bernard Lévy, EDF’s Chairman and CEO, stated: “In line with our forecasts, the 2017 results demonstrate EDF’s solidity, once again profitable, in a difficult market context. Continuing the deployment of its CAP 2030 strategy and the successful execution of its performance plan, the Group strengthened its balance sheet and reduced its financial debt by €4.4bn in 2017. We are beginning an unprecedented acceleration in renewable energies with the launch of EDF’s Solar Plan, at the same time that we are strengthening our commercial initiatives. Supported by our staff dedicated to working in the service of the energy transition and by a newly reorganized nuclear industry, EDF now enjoys a solid basis to achieve the rebound expected in 2018.”
The results of the 2017 fiscal year are in line with expectations, despite the decline in nuclear and hydropower output in France and the unfavourable price conditions in almost all geographic areas where the Group is active. Actions undertaken to optimize operations and accelerate cost reductions have helped generate an EBITDA of €13.7 billion, in line with the initial targets.
EBITDA for the France - Generation and supply activities segment amounted to €4,876 million. Restated for the impact of the tariff adjustment, which took place in 2016, EBITDA was down 7.9% in organic terms. This change is mainly due to the decline in nuclear and hydropower output, to the impact of the purchases of the volumes required to cover the ARENH subscriptions in a tense market environment, and, to a lesser extent, to the unfavourable conditions in the downstream market.
EBITDA for France - Regulated activities amounted to €4,898 million. Restated for the impact of the tariff adjustment which took place in 2016, EBITDA was down 3.8% in organic terms. This change is attributable to the downward trend in volumes delivered by Enedis, the impact of storms and hurricanes and the positive factors in 2016 that had no equivalent in 2017.
In the United Kingdom, EBITDA was down 33.3% in organic terms to €1,035 million, mainly due to the significant impact of lower realised nuclear prices.
In Italy, EBITDA recorded an organic increase of 42.1% to €910 million due in particular to favourable trends in electricity sale prices and to the optimisation of the gas-fired generation fleet. The performance of the exploration-production activities for hydrocarbons, in a context of higher Brent oil and gas prices and higher output after a new platform came online, also contributed to this positive development in EBITDA.
EDF Énergies Nouvelles’ performance benefitted from an 11% increase in renewable power output in connection with an increase of 1.6GW in net installed capacities to 7.8 GW. EBITDA stood at €751 million, down 14.8 % in organic terms, due to asset rotation than in 2016. EBITDA of generation rose by 8.5% organically to €741 million.
EBITDA for the Other international segment stood at €457 million, an organic decrease of 17.9%, attributable essentially to the drop in electricity prices and to lower power generation in Belgium. The unfavourable revision from the index of the price of the Power Purchase Agreement in Brazil also contributed to the decrease.
Publish on 07/03/2018
announce the establishment of a joint venture to build and operate a portfolio of
distributed rooftop solar projects in China.
ACC is widely considered China’s leading multinational rooftop solar developer, and
EDF Energies Nouvelles is the renewable subsidiary of EDF Group, one of the
world's largest electricity companies. The joint‐venture will benefit from ACC’s
local footprint in distributed solar energy and from EDF Energies Nouvelles’
international distributed solar energy and self‐consumption expertise solutions for
ACC’s business focuses on rooftop solar projects. It invests in the solar projects and
undertakes the design, construction, and long‐term system maintenance. ACC has
invested in and built solar projects in the PRC for many of the world’s leading
corporations, including P&G, Danone, Nestlé, Coca‐Cola, Volkswagen, Unilever,
Fujitsu, and others.
The partnership comes at a time of rapid growth for ACC. It has achieved triple‐digit
growth for three consecutive years and was named “The New Prominent Enterprise
in energy industry in 2017” by the China Energy Development and Innovation Forum
Committee and “Best Distributed Solar Developer” for 2016 by TÜV NORD, the
world’s leading solar consulting and testing firm.
Thomas Lapham, CEO of Asia Clean Capital, said “We are tremendously excited to
work with EDF Energies Nouvelles, given their unparalleled experience and expertise
in renewable energy worldwide. We will tap our respective advantages and help
more companies generate and use green electricity.”
Operating in China for more than 30 years, EDF works in several segments of the
energy market including nuclear power, renewable energy and energy services.
Bruno Fyot, Chief Operating Officer of EDF Energies Nouvelles added, “As a subsidiary
of the EDF Group, a global leader in low‐carbon energy, EDF Energies Nouvelles is
committed to using its expertise in distributed renewable energy in France and in the
United States, as well as EDF’s historic presence in the Chinese electricity market to
develop and expand this newly formed joint venture with ACC “.
Publish on 07/03/2018
Forging ahead with a growing solar energy portfolio
With a total capacity of 87 MWp, the three new solar plants cover the annual energy requirements of 120 000 Indian households. They have added to the Group’s existing solar capacity in India, which now amounts to 207 MWp.
Two of the three plants are located in the State of Uttarakhand in Northern India. Each has an installed capacity of 36 MWp with a 49% equity share held by EDEN, a subsidiary that was set up in 2016 and that is equally owned by EDF Energies Nouvelles and EREN Renewable Energy. The remaining 51% are respectively owned by local partners Omkar Powertech India Private Limited, Profigate Infra Gasoline and Rays Power Infra.
Located in the State of Madhya Pradesh, the third plant has a capacity of 15 MWp and is owned by EDEN.
The three solar facilities have a 25-year power purchase agreement (PPA) with local transmission system operators: Uttarakhand Power Corporation Ltd (UPCL) with the first two plants and Madhya Pradesh Power Management Company Limited (MPPMCL) with the third.
The EDF Group’s first wind farms in India
The five wind farms consist of 82 turbines with a total installed capacity of 164 MW. Located in the State of Gujarat, one of India’s windiest regions, they generate enough power to meet the annual demand of 460 000 Indian households.
The wind farms were built by SITAC Wind Management and Development, a company specialising in wind power. It is equally owned by EDF Energies Nouvelles and the SITAC Group. Each wind farm has a 25-year power purchase agreement (PPA) with Gujarat Urja Vikas Nigam Ltd. (GUVNL), the region’s distribution utility.
EDF supports the energy transition in India
With these recently commissioned facilities, the EDF Group now operates nearly 371 MW of installed solar and wind capacity in India. The country has significant growth potential when it comes to both of these energy sources and aims to have 100 GWp and 60 GW of installed capacity by year 2022 respectively.
As far as nuclear power is concerned, EDF and India’s Nuclear Power Corp of India Ltd (NPCIL) signed a cooperation agreement in January 2016, relating to the planned construction of 6 EPR reactors at Jaitapur
in Western India. The Group is also involved in the development of smart grids. In September 2016, EDF was chosen to partner the state-run company WAPCOS in designing an infrastructure of 75 000 smart meters for the New Delhi municipality. Acting through its subsidiary Citelum, the Group also maintains and operates public lighting systems in the Indore and Ahmenabad municipalities.
Jean-Bernard Lévy, the EDF Group’s Chairman and Chief Executive, stated: "We are proud of being able to play an active role in India’s energy transition by offering a comprehensive range of energy solutions. The recently commissioned wind and solar plants are aligned with the two key objectives of the Group’s CAP 2030 strategy: achieving 50 GW of renewable energy capacity by year 2030 and growing our business in a rapidly expanding market like India".
Publish on 11/01/2018
The first contract concluded with the municipality of Sanya (700,000 inhabitants in the province of Hainan in the south of the country) covers design, construction and operation for thirty years of the network of chilled water (for air conditioning) and sanitation hot water production stations. The network will supply the touristic area under development, composed of around twenty hotels, shopping centres and a hospital, representing 3.4 million square metres of effective surface area. Based on high performance equipment combined with solar panels and a smart operating system, the network enables CO2 emissions to be reduced by 20% compared to the use of individual systems, i.e. up to 70,000 tonnes of CO2 less per year. It will be jointly operated with the local partner, Changfeng Energy (50%).
EDF has concluded a contract with the town of Lingbao (750,000 inhabitants in the province of Henan in the centre of the country) to build and operate a 35-MW biomass cogeneration plant for 30 years. The facility will supply electricity and heating for around 25,000 homes in the town. The municipality can definitively stop using individual coal-fired boilers right after the commissioning of the planned scheduled for 2019, thus reducing CO2 by 150,000 tonnes per year. The plant will be supplied with tree residues, whose supply constitutes additional income for the region’s farmers.
“With the aim of reducing its energy intensity by 15% by the year 2020, China represents an energy service market with high potential. The two new contracts consolidate the Group position in China and fit in with our strategy CAP 2030, which plans to triple EDF activity abroad in countries with high growth by the year 2030”, stated Jean-Bernard Lévy, the EDF Group Chairman and Chief Executive.
EDF operations in China
Operating in China for more than 30 years, the EDF Group works in several segments of the energy market:
- Nuclear power: within the framework of a joint venture with CGN, the Group has developed 2 EPRs on the site of Taishan. In 2017, hot functional testing was successfully performed on unit 1, to test the equipment at temperature and pressure levels similar to operating conditions. The expected commercial operation of the reactor will commence in 2018. Electromechanical assembly is being continued on unit 2, with start-up planned for 2019. EDF also provides support for the CGN Group with operation of its entire fleet.
- Renewable energies: in July 2016, EDF Énergies Nouvelles acquired a majority holding (80%) in the company UPC Asia Wind Management (AWM), which develops and builds wind power plants in China. The operation covers four plants in operation (66 MW net), one plant under construction (40 MW net) and an extensive portfolio of projects under development.
- Energy services: at the end of 2017, the Group was granted extension of its concession in the town of Sanmenxia (province of Henan), where EDF has been operating an optimised district heating network, based on recovery of heat from fossil-fuel power plants, in partnership with the Datang electricity company (35%) since 2016. After extension, the district heating network will supply 2 million square metres of town housing.
- Fossil-fuel power plants: EDF holds 49% of FZPC (joint venture with a subsidiary of Datang), which built and operates Fuzhou ultra-supercritical coal-fired power plant. This technology ensures better efficiency (~44% for Fuzhou) and limited environmental impact. Unit 1 was commissioned at the end of 2015 and unit 2 was commissioned in April 2016. EDF has holdings in two other companies operating fossil-fuel power plants.